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Shariah ruling for distribution of property during life
77992تقسیم جائیداد کے مسائلمتفرّق مسائل

سوال

Assalamualaikum. My father in law has 5 sons and 1 daughter. He brought 500 sq yard land for 5 sons. First elder 2 brothers build ground floor and 1st floor on 300 square yards. My father in law told my husband and other 5th brother to build ground floor plus 2 floors on remaining 200 yards. On 300 yards 3rd brother and 1st brother build more 2 floors (total ground +3). Now my father in law gave 300 yards ground floor to 5th son and 200 yards 2 floors to my husband and 1 floor to his daughter. My mother in law is no more. Is this division of property correct as per Islam?

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Before answering the question, it is important to understand some things as a preamble. In life, the distribution of property etc. is called Hibah means gift. The ruling of Shariah about Hibah (gift) is that, equality should be done among the children, i.e. sons and daughters, all should be given an equal share, depriving daughters or giving more or less to one of the children without any Shariah reason is not allowed. While doing Hibah, it is also necessary that the Wahib i.e. the giver of the gift (donor) should transfer of ownership and deliver possession of the thing being gifted with the right of ownership and possession to the Mohoob or donee (i.e. the one who has been gifted or recipient of the gift) so that the gift can be completed in a Shariah manner. Therefore, in life, if your father in law wants to distribute his property etc. among his children, then he should distribute according to the following details.

  1. Distribute equal share among the children, whether it is a son or a daughter, and make each of them the owner of their share and give possession without any barrier.
  2. If the equal share is not distributed among the children and the reason for not distributing the equal share, is to cause harm to someone, then this act is makruh tahrimi, if harm is not intended and there is no reason to prefer it, then this act is makruh tanzihi. However, it is mustahabb to give an equal share of gift to each of the children, whether it is a son or a daughter, but according to the opinion of some jurists, it is also permissible to give double the gift to the son compared to the daughter according to the share of inheritance, but the difference is more than that prohibited without reason.
  3. It is possible to increase or decrease while giving children for any reasonable cause, such as piety, engaging in religious affairs, serving or being needier, etc. and it is recommended to increase or decrease due to such reasons.
  4. If there is an intention to transfer the property etc., then make distribution and give possession of the property so that the transfer is completed according to Sharia. Similarly, if the property etc. is intended to be shared jointly, then it is still necessary to give possession by making the owner, For which this method can be adopted that one of the heirs who are to be bequeathed together should be made an attorney for its distribution.

After this detail, the answer of your question is that apparently, your father-in-law did not distribute his property among his children equally, so if there is a satisfied reason for this, such as the children who have been given extra share, they have more family members, etc., then this distribution is also valid without any sin.

However, if there is no any satisfied reason for unequal distribution then your father-in-law is committed a sin in this distribution even though ownership is transferred. Now, in this distribution he is guilty of sin according to Shariah, so he should satisfy the children who have been given less share by giving them something else.

 

حوالہ جات

البحر الرائق شرح كنز الدقائق ومنحة الخالق وتكملة الطوري (7/ 288)
يكره تفضيل بعض الأولاد على البعض في الهبة حالة الصحة إلا لزيادة فضل له في الدين وإن وهب ماله كله الواحد جاز قضاء وهو آثم كذا في المحيط وفي فتاوى قاضي خان رجل أمر شريكه بأن يدفع إلى ولده مالا فامتنع الشريك عن الأداء كان للابن أن يخاصمه إن لم يكن على وجه الهبة وإن كان على وجهها لا لأنه في الأول وكيل عن الأب وفي الثاني لا وهي غير تامة لعدم الملك لعدم القبض وفي الخلاصة المختار التسوية بين الذكر والأنثى في الهبة ولو كان ولده فاسقا فأراد أن يصرف ماله إلى وجوه الخير ويحرمه عن الميراث هذا خير من تركه لأن فيه إعانة على المعصية ولو كان ولده فاسقا لا يعطي له أكثر من قوته.
عيون المسائل للسمرقندي الحنفي (ص: 350)
التسوية في الهبة بين الابن والابنة
1733. رجل له ابن وابنة فأراد أن يهب لهما شيئاً فالأفضل أن يسوي بينهما في قول أبي يوسف، وقَالَ مُحَمَّدٌ: يجعل للذكر مثل حظ الانثيين. فإن وهب ماله كله للابن؟ قَالَ: هو آثم وأجيزه في القضاء.
الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (5/ 696)
وفي الخانية لا بأس بتفضيل بعض الأولاد في المحبة لأنها عمل القلب، وكذا في العطايا إن لم يقصد به الإضرار، وإن قصده فسوى بينهم يعطي البنت كالابن عند الثاني وعليه الفتوى ولو وهب في صحته كل المال للولد جاز وأثم.
الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (5/ 690)
(وتتم) الهبة (بالقبض) الكامل.
تبيين الحقائق شرح كنز الدقائق وحاشية الشلبي (5/ 93)
ولا تجوز في مشاع يقسم….والقبض في المشاع موجود من وجه دون وجه؛ لأن القبض عبارة عن كون الشيء في حيز القابض والمشاع ليس في حيزه من كل وجه؛ لأنه في حيزه من وجه وفي حيز شريكه من وجه
وتمامها لا يحصل إلا بالقسمة؛ لأن الأنصباء بها تتميز وتجتمع وما لم يجتمع لا يصير محرزا أو يكون إحرازا ناقصا فلا ينهض لإفادة الملك

محمد حمزہ سلیمان

دارالافتا ء،جامعۃالرشید ،کراچی

08/ربیع الاول1444ھ

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مجیب

محمد حمزہ سلیمان بن محمد سلیمان

مفتیان

سیّد عابد شاہ صاحب / محمد حسین خلیل خیل صاحب

جواب دیں

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